Married female immigrants to the U.S. who speak a language with sex-based grammatical rules exhibit lower labor force participation, hours worked, and weeks worked.
Grammatical Gender Structures database
First-generation immigrants to the U.S. from 1910 to the present are less likely to participate in the labor force if their mother tongue marks gender distinctions more pervasively.
The epidemiological approach enables to identify the relationship between sex-based gender distinctions in language and female labor force participation.
The pervasiveness of gender distinctions in grammar is strongly correlated with the adoption of political gender quotas.
Women speaking languages that more pervasively mark gender distinctions are less likely to participate in economic and political life, and more likely to encounter barriers in their access to land and credit.