Third Republic

Urbanization and the Change in Political Elites

This study argues that urbanization changed the relationship between the occupation of candidates running in parliamentary elections and their electoral success. To identify local-level variation in urbanization, we leverage exogenous changes to the …

Weapons of Mass Production. World War I and the Modernization of the French Economy

During the First World War in France, annual government spending reached unprecedented levels, accounting for 50 percent of GDP. A significant portion of these expenditures was allocated to support industrial warfare, at a time when the country’s …

Morts Pour la France: A Database of French Fatalities of the Great War

This article describes the construction and content of the Morts pour la France database.

Caught in the Crossfire: World War I and the Extension of Women’s Suffrage in France

In 1925, of the 22 countries that could be classified as democracies, only four —France, Belgium, Portugal and Switzerland— had yet to extend suffrage to women. France is an intriguing exception: as a co-belligerent in WWI, the country experienced …

The Intergenerational Transmission of World War I on Female Labor

The interwar inflow of women in the labor force due to WWI persisted until today through intergenerational transmission mechanisms.

The Morts Pour la France Database

Database on the 1.3 million French fatalities of World War I

The Missing Men. World War I and Female Labor Force Participation

The scarcity of men due to the war generated an upward shift in female labor force participation that persisted throughout the interwar period.

Mapping the Third Republic. A Geographic Information System of France (1870–1940)

Describes a comprehensive geographic information system of Third-Republic France: the TRF-GIS.


The Third-Republic France Geographic Information System (1870–1940)